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CLINICAL STUDIES

 

*SKINPEP® USER SURVEY 2012-2013 89 SkinPep® users were asked about their experiences using our peptide serums, 90% said they noticed an improvement in the appearance of skin within 3 weeks. 87% agreed they noticed the appearance of a new skin glow. This may conclude the use of SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear and Eye Lift Serum results in the formation of new glowing skin within a few weeks.

 

SODIUM HYALURONATE
is a source of Haluronic acid. Its name is derived from the
Greek word hualos, meaning glass because of its transparent, glassy appearance. Haluronic Acid is moisture retaining ingredient and humectants. Haluronic acid is a natural skin
cell component, found in the deepest levels of the dermis.
It is able to hold 200 times its weight in water, which makes
it an excellent moisturiser. It is found more in younger skins
with levels declining over the years.

(Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=hyaluronic%20acid%20skin)

 

FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS:
SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, SkinPep® HydroGel Face Mask, SkinPep® HydroGel Eye Mask, SkinPep® HydroGel Décollatage Mask, SkinPep® Revitalising Tone


MAGNESIUM ASCORBYL-PHOSPHATE (A STABLE NON ACIDIC FORM OF VITAMIN C)
is used to support collagen synthesis and protect from free radicals, it is a water-soluble, non-irritating, stable derivative of Vitamin C. It has the same potential as vitamin C to boost skin collagen. It is also important to note that Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate may be better choice than Vitamin C for people with sensitive skin and those wishing to avoid any exfoliating effects since many Vitamin C formulas are highly acidic (and therefore produce exfoliating effects).In skin care products, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) is also used for UV protection and repair, collagen production, skin lightening and brightening, and as an anti-inflammatory. It is also a potent antioxidant. It is considered an excellent non-irritating skin whitening agent that inhibits skin cells to produce melanin and lightens age spots, and is a great alternative to Quinone. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate is a also a potent anti-oxidant that can protect skin from oxidation and UV rays, and is used as an anti-inflammatory. There are no adverse side effects to using Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP), although those with sensitive skin may need to be aware of Vitamin C's acidic and exfoliating effects. However, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) is generally considered gentler than traditional Vitamin C and therefore safer on sensitive skin. Magnesium Ascorbyl-Phosphate is absorbed quickly by the aqueous environment of our bodies, but because it is fat soluble it also penetrates the bilayer of human cells much more readily. Magnesium Ascorbyl-Phosphate, working at the cell membrane, has been shown to provide antioxidant action potential comparable or even greater than that of vitamin E. It also acts synergistically with vitamin E, helping to regenerate the vitamin E radical on a constant basis.
References: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/16154915/reload=0;jsessionid=y1X7TaeEEBD


U80flut7m.12"Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention "Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of pro-collagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy

FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, SkinPep® C-Bright Booster Powder

 

 

 

8.

Int J Cosmet Sci. 2008 Dec;30(6):453-8. Stability of vitamin C derivatives in topical formulations containing lipoic acid, vitamins A and E. Segall AI, Moyano MA. Cátedra de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, 1113 Buenos Aires, Argentina. asegall@ffyb.uba.ar

The stability of ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in topical formulations was investigated by direct reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography after sample dilution with a suitable buffer - organic solvent mixture. Ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are derivatives of
ascorbic acid which differ in hydrolipophilic properties. They are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. According to the results, ascorbyl esters showed significant differences: sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are more stable derivatives of vitamin C than ascorbyl palmitate and may be easily used in cosmetic products.
 
PMID: 19099546 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19099546

 

7.

Skin Res Technol. 2008 Aug;14(3):376-80. In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo efficacy of topical formulations containing vitamin C and its derivatives studied by non-invasive methods.  Campos PM, Gonçalves GM, Gaspar LR. Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. pmcampos@usp.br

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Vitamins C and its derivatives, mainly due to their antioxidant properties, are being used in cosmetic products to protect and to reduce the signs of ageing. However, there are no studies comparing the effects of vitamin C ascorbic acid (AA) and its derivatives, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) and ascorbyl tetra-isopalmitate (ATIP), when vehiculated in topical formulations, mainly using objective measurements, which are an important tool in clinical efficacy studies. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of AA and its derivatives, MAP and ATIP, as well as their in vivo efficacy on human skin, when vehiculated in topical formulations.
METHODS: The study of antioxidant activity in vitro was performed with an aqueous and a lipid system. The in vivo methodology consisted of the application of these formulations on human volunteers' forearm skin and the analysis of the skin conditions after 4-week period daily applications in terms of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum moisture content and viscoelasticity using a Tewameter, Corneometer and Cutometer, respectively.
RESULTS: In vitro experiments demonstrated that in an aqueous system, AA had the  best antioxidant potential, and MAP was more effective than ATIP, whereas in the  lipid system ATIP was more effective than MAP. In in vivo studies, all formulations enhanced stratum corneum moisture content after a 4-week period daily applications when compared with baseline values; however, only the formulation containing AA caused alterations in TEWL values. The formulations containing MAP caused alterations in the viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio, which suggested its action in the deeper layers of the skin.
CONCLUSION: AA and its derivates presented an in vitro antioxidant activity but AA had the best antioxidant effect. In in vivo efficacy studies, only the formulation containing AA caused alterations in TEWL values and the formulation containing MAP caused alterations in the viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio. This way, vitamin C derivatives did not present the same effects of AA on human skin; however, MAP showed other significant effect-improving skin hydration, which is very important for the normal cutaneous metabolism and also to prevent skin alterations and early ageing. 
PMID: 19159387 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19159387

 

6.

Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1301-5.  Protective effects of sodium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate on the development of UVB-induced damage in cultured mouse skin.  Nayama S, Takehana M, Kanke M, Itoh S, Ogata E, Kobayashi S.  Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo,Japan.

The protective effect of sodium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate (As-2P), a stable form of  ascorbicacid (AsA), against photodamage induced by a single dose of UVB exposure (290-320 nm, Max 312 nm) was investigated using cultured mouse skin. When the cultured skin was treated with various As-2P concentrations, the cutaneous AsA level increased in proportion to the As-2P concentration. After 3 h of incubation, the AsA level in the cultured skin treated with 2, 20 and 100 mM As-2P increased 1.03-, 2.17- and 6.27-fold, respectively, compared with that of the control skin. These results suggest that As-2P was transported into the cultured mouse skin where it was converted to AsA. After 3 h, the cutaneous AsA level inirradiated (20 kJ/m2) skin was depleted to a half of that in the control skin. However, the level in skin pretreated with 20 mM As-2P was maintained within normal limits, even after 24 h. Pretreatment with 20 mM As-2P significantly prevented such photodamage as sunburn cell formation, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation, which were caused by a single dose of UVB irradiation. These results suggest that the protective effect of 20 mM As-2P on UVB-induced cutaneous damage is due to the maintenance of a normal As level by conversion of As-2P to As in skin tissue. 
PMID: 10746160  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10746160

 

5.

Photochem Photobiol. 1998 Jun;67(6):669-75.  Postadministration protective effect of magnesium-L-ascorbyl-phosphate on the development of UVB-induced cutaneous damage in mice.  Kobayashi S, Takehana M, Kanke M, Itoh S, Ogata E.  Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan. kobayashi-sz@kyoritsu-ph.ac.jp


The effects of stable vitamin C, magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (MAP), administered afteracute and chronic exposure to UVB irradiation were investigated using hairless mice. Intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg of  MAP immediately after acute exposure to 15 kJ/m2 of UVB significantly prevented increases of UVB-induced lipid peroxidation in skinand sialic acid in serum, an  inflammation marker. Administration of 50 mg/kg of MAP immediately after each exposure significantly delayed skin tumor formation and hyperplasia induced by chronicexposure to 2 kJ/m2 of UVB. Intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg of MAP produced anincrease in ascorbic acid (As) levels in the serum, liver and  skin within 15 min. Serum As levels quickly returned to normal, but hepatic and cutaneous levels remained elevated before returning to normal after 24 h, suggesting that MAP was converted to As in the serum and in those tissues. Ultraviolet B-induced hydroxyl radical generation in murine skin homogenates was  scavenged by As-Na addition, which was directly detected by electron spin resonance (ESR). These results suggest that postadministration of MAP delays progression of skin damage induced by UVB irradiation. It is presumed that MAP, once converted to As, exhibits such inhibitory effects by scavenging hydroxyl and lipid radicals generated as a direct or indirect result of UVB exposure. 
PMID: 9648533  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9648533

 

4.

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997 Mar;15(6):795-801.  Stability of vitamin C derivatives in solution and topical formulations.  Austria R, Semenzato A, Bettero A.  Universit? di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Italy.


The stabilityy of ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (VC-PMG) in both standard solutions and topical formulations was investigated by direct RP-HPLC analysis after sample dilution with a suitable aqueous-organic solvent mixture. The results showed that, whereas the two vitamin C derivatives were more stable than ascorbic acid, the ascorbyl esters showed significant differences. Esterification with palmitic acid in 6 position did not  prevent hydrolysis of the molecule, either in solution or in emulsion; only the special preparation of products with high viscoelastic properties was able to reduce the typical behaviour of this compound. Conversely, the introduction of the phosphoric group in 2 position protected the molecule frombreak-up of the enediol system, confirming VC-PMG as a very stable derivative of vitamin C that may be easily used in various types of cosmetic products. 
PMID: 9172105 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9172105

 

3.

Photochem Photobiol. 1996 Jul;64(1):224-8.  Protective effect of magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation.  Kobayashi S, Takehana M, Itoh S, Ogata E.  Kyoritsu College of Pharmacy, Tokyo, Japan.


The protective effect of magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (MAP) on cutaneous photodamage such as lipid peroxidation and inflammation induced by ultraviolet B  (UVB) exposure (290-320 nm, max. 312 nm) was investigated using hairless mice. When MAP was administered intraperitoneally to mice at a dose of 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AS) per kg body weight base immediately before irradiation (15 kj/m2), the expected increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)  formation in skin and serum sialic acid, indices of lipid peroxidation and inflammatory reaction, respectively, were significantly reduced. However, the expected decrease in the level of cutaneous AS was unchanged. Similar results were observed for animals given 100 mg of AS-Na per kg body weight before UVB irradiation. When MAP was administered intracutaneously immediately before irradiation, the expected UVB-induced increases in TBARS and sialic acid were again significantly prevented. Ascorbic acid-Na had a less protective effectthan intracutaneous MAP administration. The cutaneous AS level was significantly higher in the MAP-treated mice than in the controls, and the UVB-induced decrease in tissue AS wasprevented by intracutaneous MAP administration. These results suggest that MAP protects against UVB irradiation-induced lipid peroxidation and  inflammation in cutaneous tissue, regardless of the drug administration route. We found, in an in vitro experiment, that MAP was converted to AS as it crossed the  epidermis, but that AS-Na did not pass through the epidermis. Furthermore, MAP was also converted to AS in serum. These results suggest that the protective effect of MAP on UVB-induced cutaneous damage is due to conversion of MAP to AS. 
PMID: 8787018 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8787018

 

2.

J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 Jan;34(1):29-33.  Inhibitory effect of magnesium L-ascorbyl-2phosphate (VC-PMG) on melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo.  Kameyama K, Sakai C, Kondoh S,Yonemoto K, Nishiyama S, Tagawa M, Murata T, Ohnuma T, Quigley J, Dorsky A, Bucks D, Blanock K.  Department of Dermatology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Japan.


BACKGROUND: An inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) on melanogenesis has been described.However, AsA is quickly oxidized and decomposed in aqueous solution and thus is not generally useful as a depigmenting agent.
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to examine the effect on pigmentation of magnesium-L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (VC-PMG), a stable derivative of AsA.
METHODS: Percutaneous absorption of VC-PMG was examined in dermatomed human skin, and its effect on melanin production by mammalian tyrosinase and human melanoma cells in
culture was also measured. A 10% VC-PMG cream was applied to the patients.

RESULTS: VC-PMG suppressed melanin formation by tyrosinase and melanoma cells. In situ experiments demonstrated that VC-PMG cream was absorbed into the epidermis and that 1.6% remained 48 hours after application. The lightening effect was significant in 19 of 34 patients with chloasma or senile freckles and in 3 of 25  patients with normal skin.
CONCLUSION: VC-PMG is effective in reducing skin hyperpigmentation in some patients. 
PMID: 8543691  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8543691

 

1.

Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6(1):65-71.  Regulation of collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts by the sodium and magnesium salts of ascorbyl-2-phosphate.  Geesin JC, Gordon JS, Berg RA. Department of Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway 08854.


Ascorbic acid has been shown to stimulate collagen synthesis in dermal fibroblasts by increasing the rate of transcription of collagen genes. Experiments involving the use of ascorbic acid require daily supplementation due  to the instability of the molecule in aqueous solutions. In order to provide a more stable alternative to ascorbic acid, two salts of ascorbyl-2-phosphate, having a greater chemical stability than ascorbic acid, were tested for their ability to stimulate collagen synthesis in monolayer fibroblast cultures. The concentration and time dependence of their activities were compared with ascorbic acid. The magnesium salt of ascorbyl-2-phosphate was found to be equivalent to ascorbic acid in stimulating collagen synthesis in these assays, while the sodium salt required at least a tenfold greater concentration to produce the same effect as ascorbic acid. Solutions of either ascorbic acid or the ascorbyl-2-phosphate analogs (at 10 mM) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were relatively stable as shown by their decay rates and their ability to stimulate collagen synthesis even after nine days in solution prior to testing their effects on cultured cells. Ascorbic acid was unstable at neutral pH compared to solutions of either sodium or magnesium ascorbyl-2-phosphate. These data support the use of magnesium ascorbyl-2-phosphate in experiments where stability of ascorbic acid is a concern, e.g. in long-term cultures or in in vivo studies. 
PMID: 8489778  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=8489778

 

 

ANTI-OXIDANT CLINICAL TRIALS

 

Dermatologic Surgery December 1999, page 942

Dermatologic Surgery June 2010, pages 829–840

Journal of Cellular Physiology, August 2009, pages 427–439; Journal of Southern Medical #

University, February 2009, pages 217–219),(ao X, Curhan G, Forman ) JP, et al. Vitamin C intake
and serum uric acid concentration in men. J Rheumatol 2008;35:1853-8.


http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/54/6/1135S.long,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=vitamin%20e
http://www.eis.hu.edu.jo/Deanshipfiles/pub10697657.pdf

Professor Chandan Sen, a co-author of the 2002 article "Dermal Wound Healing Properties of Redox-Active Grape Seed Proanthocy- anidins" in "Free Radical Biology & Medicine."


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=GRAPESEED%20EXTRACT%20%28VITIS%20VINIFERA,

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=RED%20GINSENG

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Red%20Ginseng,

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=camelia%20sinensis

 

PEPTIDES:

S-OLIGOPEPTIDE-1 ~ (EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR EGF)*
Working mainly on the outermost layers of the skin, and has the remarkable ability to repair skin damage and increase the production of new skin cells.
References: http://www.eurodream.net/files/Studio-Dott-Moy-Pubblicazione.pdf, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16029674&dopt=AbstractPlus
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, SkinPep® & HydroGel Face Mask


SH-POLYPEPTIDE-1 ~ (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR FGF)*
Fibroblasts in the lower layers of the skin instruct cells to produce collagen and elastin to renewthe skin's support structure. ShPolypeptide-1 (amino acid complex) is involved in this natural
process to Induce synthesis of new collagen thus helping to repair wounds* Induces significant
fibroblast proliferation. Induces synthesis of new collagen

References: http://www.biobeautycare.com/glycobiology/,
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16029674&dopt=AbstractPlus

FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, SkinPep® HydroGel Face Mask, SkinPep® HydroGel Eye Mask & SkinPep® HydroGel Décollatage Mask

 

SH-POLYPEPTIDE-5 ~ (TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR TGF)*
Clinically proven to optimize collagen and elastin production while inhibiting the enzymes that destroy the collagen-elastin matrix. Repairs skin damage. Calms the cellular inflammation that promotes the aging process. A potent stimulator of collagen production and promotes the
synthesis of ground substances like glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan.
(J. Biol. Chem. 262 [14]:6443-46, 1987). Inhibits matrix degradation by reducing protease activity (J. Biol. Chem. 264[3]:1860-69, 1989).
References: (Science 237 [4820]:1333-36, 1987) and to improve healing of full-thickness ulcers (J. Clin.Invest. 87[2]:694-703,1991),

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16029674&dopt=AbstractPlus
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, SkinPep®HydroGel Face Mask, SkinPep® HydroGel Eye Mask & SkinPep® HydroGel Décollatage Mask

 

PALMITOYL PENTAPEPTIDE-3
Palmitoyl-pentapepde-3 smulates collagen synthesis and smulates fibroblast molecules which aid dermal matrix repair. A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face, left-right randomized clinical study showed increased collagen production. Palmitoyl-pentapepde-3 increases skin firmness over me. The surface area occupied by deep wrinkles was reduced by
68% and mean wrinkle density by 46% – after 60 days.

(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2007.00148.x/abstract).
In a 2005 study in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-2494.2005.00261.x/full)
Palmitoyl-pentapepde-3 was found to significantly improve the appearance of fine lines + Wrinkles, as well as overall moisturization levels. References: (Science 237[4820]:1333-36, 1987) and to improve healing of full-thickness ulcers (J. Clin.Invest. 87[2]:694-703,1991),
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16029674&dopt=AbstractPlus
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, SkinPep® HydroGel Face Mask, SkinPep® HydroGel Eye Mask & SkinPep® HydroGel Décollatage Mask

 

ACETYL HEXAPEPTIDE-8
Aa combination of amino acids that may help to relax muscle fibres leading to the possible reduction in the appearance of surface wrinkles. The hexapeptide proved to reduce the depth of the wrinkles in the face caused by the contraction of the muscles of facial expression, especially
around the eyes and the forehead. It further prevents aging of the skin induced by repeated facial movements caused by excessive catecholamine release.

(References: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23146065, (J. Biol. Chem. 272[5]:2634-39, 1997)
FOUND IN THE FOLLOWING FORMULATIONS: SkinPep® Wrinkle Clear, SkinPep® Eye Lift, SkinPep® HydroGel Face Mask, SkinPep® HydroGel Eye Mask & SkinPep® HydroGel Décollatage Mask

 

Additional References:
Mehta RC, Fitzpatrik RE. Endogenous growth factors as cosmeceticals. Dermatologic Therapy 2007; Published online; 10.1111/j.1529-8019.2007.00149.x.Sundaram H,Mehta RC,Norine JA,Kirclik L,Cook- Bolden FE et al.Topically applied physiologically balanced growth factors:a new paradigm of skin rejuvenation. J.Drugs Dermatol. 2009 May 8 (5 Supply Skin Rejuvenation) :4-13.Michael H.Gold MD,Mitchel P.Goldman MD,Julie Biron

Efficacy of Novel Skin Cream Containing Mixture of Human Growth Factors and Cytokines for Skin Rejuvenation.

Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 2007: 6 (2): 197-202.
http://www.pslgroup.com/dg/2177e6.htm International

Journal of Cosmetic Science, Cosmeceutical Peptides,
http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/pubmed/23146065,
(J. Biol. Chem. 272[5]:2634-39,1997)Romo T. and Pearson J.M. 2005. Wound Healing, Skin – (
http://www.emedicine. com/ ent/topic13.htm). Emedicine.com. Accessed December 27, 2006. Mercandetti M., Cohen A.J. (2005).

"Macrophages Restrain Contraction of an In Vitro Wound Healing Model" Wound Healing: Healing and Repair.(
http:// www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic411.htm). Emedicine.com. Accessed January 20, 2008. Nguyen,

D.T., Orgill D.P., Murphy G.F. (2009). Chapter 4: The Pathophysiologic Basis for Wound Healing and Cutaneous

Regeneration - (
http://cs5937.userapi.com/u11728334/docs/ea74e26d38fa/)
Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss. Woodhead Publishing (UK/Europe) & CRC Press (US), Cambridge/Boca Raton, p. 25-57.

ISBN - 978-1- 4200-9989-9 – (http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781420099899).
ISBN - 978-1-84569- 363-3 – (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781845693633). Stadelmann, WK; Digenis, AG; Tobin, GR (1998). "Physiology and healing dynamics of chronic cutaneous wounds". American journal of surgery 176 (2A Supply): 26S–38S.
DOI - 10.1016 - (http://www.americanjournalofsurgery.com/article/ S0002-9610%2898%2900183-4/abstract) /S0002-9610 (98)00183-4).
PMID - 9777970 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed/9777970).
Quinn, J.V. (1998). Tissue Adhesives in Wound Care. Hamilton, Ont. B.C. Decker, Inc. Electronic book. Poquérusse, Jessie. "The Neuroscience of Sharing" -
(
https://www.uniiverse.com/ neuroscience). Retrieved 16 August 2012. Midwood, K.S.; Williams, L.V.; Schwarzbauer, J.E. (2004). "Tissue repair and the dynamics of the extracellular matrix". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 36 (6): 1031–1037.
DOI - 10.1016/j.biocel.2003.12.003 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15094118).
PMID - 15094118 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15094118). Chang, HY; Sneddon, JB; Alizadeh, AA; Sood, R; West, RB; Montgomery, K; Chi, JT; Van De Rijn, M et al.

 

References

 

1.

Nguyen, D.T., Orgill D.P., Murphy G.F. (2009).
Chapter 4: The Pathophysiologic Basis for Wound Healing and Cutaneous Regeneration -
(http://cs5937.userapi.com/u11728334/docs/ea74e26d38fa/)
Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss. Woodhead Publishing (UK/Europe) & CRC Press (US),
Cambridge/Boca Raton, p. 25-57.
ISBN - 978-1-4200-9989-9 – (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781420099899).
ISBN - 978-1-84569-363-3 – (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781845693633).

2.

Stadelmann, WK; Digenis, AG; Tobin, GR (1998). "Physiology and healing dynamics of chronic
cutaneous wounds". American journal of surgery 176 (2A Supply): 26S–38S.
DOI - 10.1016 - (http://www.americanjournalofsurgery.com/article/S0002-9610%
2898%2900183-4/abstract) /S0002-9610(98)00183-4).
PMID - 9777970 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9777970).

3.

Quinn, J.V. (1998). Tissue Adhesives in Wound Care. Hamilton, Ont. B.C. Decker, Inc. Electronic book.

4.

Poquérusse, Jessie.
"The Neuroscience of Sharing" -(https://www.uniiverse.com/neuroscience). Retrieved 16 August 2012.

5.

Midwood, K.S.; Williams, L.V.; Schwarzbauer, J.E. (2004). "Tissue repair and the dynamics
of the extracellular matrix". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 36 (6): 1031–1037.
DOI - 10.1016/j.biocel.2003.12.003 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15094118).
PMID - 15094118 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15094118).

6.

Chang, HY; Sneddon, JB; Alizadeh, AA; Sood, R; West, RB; Montgomery, K; Chi, JT;
Van De Rijn, M et al. (2004).
"Gene expression signature of fibroblast serum response predicts human cancer progression:
similarities between tumors and wounds"
(http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0020007).
PLoS Biology 2 (2): E7.
DOI - 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020007 - (http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio).
PMC- 314300 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC314300).
PMID - 14737219 - (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14737219).

7.

Garg, H.G. (2000). Scarless Wound Healing. New York Marcel Dekker, Inc. Electronic book.

8.

Enoch, S. Price, P. (2004). Cellular, molecular and biochemical differences in the pathophysiology

of healing between acute wounds, chronic wounds and wounds in the elderly. Worldwidewounds.com.

9.

Reference list is found on Image main page
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wound_healing_phases.png#References)
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wound_healing_phases.png#References)

10.

Galko MJ, Krasnow MA (2004).
"Cellular and genetic analysis of wound healing in Drosophila Larvae".
(http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020239)
PLoS Biology 2 (8): e239.
DOI – 10.1371 - (http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020239).
PMC - 479041 – ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC479041/).
PMID - 15269788 – (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15269788).

11.

Rosenberg L., de la Torre J. (2006).
Wound Healing, Growth Factors (http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1298196-overview).
Emedicine.com. Accessed January 20, 2008.

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Advanced skin care research on Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate
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(http://www.bulkactives.com/abstracts/map.htm)

 

 

 

External links

 

 

Wound Healing Society (http://www.woundheal.org/)
European Tissue Repair Society (http://www.etrs.org/)

Wound Repair and Regeneration (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1524-475X/issues)
The official publication of the Wound Healing Society and the European Tissue Repair Society.

Journal of Burns and Wound (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Central)/journals/211/)

Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair (http://www.fibrogenesis.com/),
An online open access journal about chronic wound healing and fibrogenesis.


EWMA Journal (http://ewma.org/english/ewma-journal/latest-issues.html),
Journal of the European Wound Management Association

DOI - Digital Object Identifier (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier).

PMC - PubMed Central ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Central).

PMID - PubMed Indentifier  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Identifier#PubMed_identifier)

ISBN - International Standard Book Number (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number)